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Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private interaction)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private interaction)

(20) The word to have ‘brother’, aha in the BT, keeps on top of that started enhanced, although this setting is even utilized in Turoyo. Hertevin have each other ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

While doing so, exterior NENA, i have other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) That instead mystical goods that’s attested in most NENA dialects except Sanandaj Religious (hence probably merely a spin pit regarding evidence) try aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues this particular term derives throughout the sources ql ‘to become crooked’. Most of the dialects make use of the means aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Another phrase chatted about because of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted the new Syriac atta in every NENA, although not from inside the Turoyo or Mandaic. Which word seems to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s interesting to see one to an uneven plural endures inside the multiple languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you can Halabja inse.

(23) An unexpected creativity discussed because of the Noldeke (1868, 59) was rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The change away from h to help you x inside one word try found in all NENA dialects where verb try attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Several other unexpected creativity ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the fresh versions zda?a good, zdaya, and you may zdala regarding the kupón interracial cupid individuals languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) render a possible derivation throughout the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms to the infixed d are found in most brand new NENA languages in which the options is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not all of your own identifying top features of NENA can be found either in Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

I believe that the above makes it obvious that the NENA languages express numerous distinctive faculties which happen to be discovered neither in the previous attested kinds of Aramaic neither in the most other life languages. These characteristics assortment along side domains out of phonology, morphology, and also the lexicon.

Specifically, the dialects regarding NENA concur from inside the requirements 2, 9, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, 21, and twenty two. The languages in which i’ve recommendations including acknowledge conditions 20, 23, and you will 24.

Just about Halabja consent in requirements 8 and you may eleven. Requirement six is found in all the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Religious.

Even after the internal departments, the new NENA dialects function a stunningly coherent category, split up certainly from one another Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The position of these languages outside of the NENA pale is out of concern.

The levels that provides was shared across NENA is especially impressive whenever we check out the immense differences between the various dialects. The fresh new determine out-of almost every other languages towards NENA has been one another strong and you can wide, and also the amount of mutual intelligibility between languages can be quite quick. The countless shared designs dispute highly for a common resource regarding the latest NENA dialects, in a choice of an individual dialect or in several directly relevant dialects. At the same time, we can discern a number of important bundles regarding isoglosses which portray new limitations from dialect groups.

a) The newest dialect from Halabja does not show specific extremely important innovations which can be found through all the remaining portion of the dialects. It doesn’t form good CCiC-ce preterite out-of intransitive verbs (8), it has got zero b(it)- future marker (10), and has now zero third person only 1 copula which have 1 (11). This might be the essential simple department anywhere between dialects from NENA. This means your left languages form a team by which innovations give if you’re Halabja stayed unchanged of the them.

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